That is why “differences are referred to as problematic areas or difficulties in contrastive analysis” (Brown 2000). I have searched the web for a list of phonemes by language, but couldn't find any. As English is not my first language, you have really helped me to improve and get the grades that I deserve. In fact, he checks the similarities and differences in both languages. The Arabic alphabet, or الأبجدية [el abjadiyya], consists of 28 letters, 25 of which are consonants, and only 3 are vowels: أ [alif] , و [waw] and ي [ya’a] also known as long vowels. Two consonants at the beginning of words: /s/ followed by /p, t, k, f, m, n, l, w, j/. The Arabic language is a central Semitic language that is the fourth most widely spoken language in the world. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. It represents a short vowel a (a little like the “u” in “but”; a short “ah” sound). } If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Uvulars, pharyngeal, glottals: Arabic /x/ خ, /˛g/̣غ, /ḥ/, /h/ ـه, /h/ء – English /h/ (Kopczynski, 1993). About 341 million people are native English speakers and 267 million use it as a second language in over 104 countries, including the UK, Ireland, Canada, the USA, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, American Samoa, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba, Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cameroon, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Cook Islands, and Denmark (Javed, 2013). These four consonants are transferred from Persian into Khuzestani Arabic. Email protected by JavaScript. B) Creating a situation in which practicing teachers and learners could evaluate the theoretical and practical aspects of contrastive analysis. Languages have different phonetic inventories. When Ya’ is used to represent the long vowel, kasra appears above the preceding consonant. For the analysis, the works by Manhammed Hassan Abdul Rahman, Farheen Javed, Andrzej Kopczynski, Mona M. Hamad as well as linguistic studies across the cultures of Cambridge and Oxford universities and websites of linguistics and pedagogical universities were used. How many languages are there in the world? Here we discuss the two sound systems of Arabic and English and then compare the results. One more representative of the “h-like” group is the vocalized Arabic version of /h/: the ayn (ع) and ghayn (غ). It is also very changeable as it has a huge tendency to borrow words from other languages, modify them, create new items, and simplify the language, using lots of shortenings, abbreviations, and idioms (Catford, 1974). There are many weird verb changes, the vowels aren't pronounced the same ever, and almost every letter is silent in one way shape or form. However, it is important to note that there are sounds that have representation only in one of the languages, or there are similar consonants that exist both in Arabic and English but belong to different groups in classification. Fatha is a diagonal stroke written above the consonant which precedes it in pronunciation. It has not only scientific significance but also may be used for practical purposes. This study discusses the differences between Arabic and English sounds. I am a single mother, I work and I study. The table below illustrates the English consonants. The Arabic Alphabet: Vowels. This can be argued to be the only pattern found in most of the world's languages, and perhaps the primary pattern in all of them. Consonants that can be found in both languages but vary in the manner and place of articulation. There are some similarities and differences in uttering these consonants and vowels in English and Khuzestani Arabic; so the researcher decided to elaborate on the similarities and differences by representing the sounds of both languages … If you are referring only to the letters of the Alphabet, then depending on dialect and definition, there are about 16. Modern Standard Arabic(MSA) and colloquial varieties have specialized functions. After comparing and contrasting these dialects she found that although minor differences have been emerged, the syntactic structure of these four Arabic dialects is similar. The paper was formatted exactly how I had asked. Berber languages, also called Amazigh languages, family of languages in the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. It is a branch of Afro-Asiatic family of languages including Hebrew, Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician. Looking for a flexible role? In Arabic, vowels come in both long and short. An exception would be قلق (@Erik – thanks for telling me; see comment). The use of language throughout the Arab world is characterized by diglossia, i.e., proficiency in a colloquial variety and in Modern Standard Arabic, the latter to a greater or lesser extent. Glides include /w/ and /j/ in English and accordingly /w/و, and /j/ ي in Arabic. Spoken in ancient times in Palestine, Hebrew was supplanted by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning about the 3rd century BC. The following classification exists both for Arabic and English consonants, and examples will be provided below. Consonants 1.1 English consonants He sheds the lights on the dissimilarity in men’s and women’s use of standard and colloquial variants of three phonological variables, /q/, /θ/, /ð/ and /aw/ /ay/. Note: the double ‘r’ in this example shows the intensification of that sound in Arabic. And there's just many more different ways of making an obstruction in your mouth than transforming a sound like that. 5) The articulation of the long vowel / i:/ in Arabic is similar to the high front vowel /i:/ in English. cause misunderstandings and improper lexis use. As you’ll probably find when you learn to speak Arabic online, it is a unique language. Arabic nasals do not tend to make any syllables. The difficulties for the listener or learner are in the fact that an Arabic speaker will feel the difference in pronunciation of hard and soft /s/, for example, while the vowels affecting the consonants stay the same. Taking into consideration that Arabic is identical in pronunciation and writing unlike English, Arabic learners of English often may turn the orthography gemination into the phonetical, which is incorrect ( Amer, 2010) . It is worth noting that vowels which are absent in Arabic and present in English must be learned because they will cause trouble for the Arabs who are learning English. It helped develop analytical and writing skills on linguistic topics and will hopefully be beneficial from the pedagogical point of view as it includes some recommendations for improving the process of studying at phonetic level. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Another confusing phenomenon existing in both languages but used differently is doubling of consonants. It is the official language in 26 countries, including Morocco, Iraq, Egypt, Israel, Sudan, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Mauritania, etc. Three consonants at the beginning of words: /spr/, /str/,/skr/, /stj/, /spl/, /skw/, /skj/ as in skew (this sequence is rare in English). There are 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet. Since Arabic is the holy language of Islam, non-Arab Muslims learn the language, too. Consonants (30). 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